The size and length of the territory, the influence of the Arctic and Atlantic oceans, the natural barrier of the Ural Mountains in the east create a heterogeneous climate. These places are characterized by frequent invasions of cold Arctic and relatively warm Atlantic air masses. Such conditions are a fertile ground for cyclones, sudden changes in pressure and air temperature, rapid changes in the direction and speed of winds, and an abundance of precipitation. Location in the subarctic and temperate climatic zones determines the climate with severe long winters (up to -50° C) and short cool summers.